As far as philosophy goes, I think you might find "process philosophy" more to your liking. From what I have seen it is compatible with the ideas in MBT.
Also, you wrote:
"It was at the breakdown of causality where I began to realize that abstractions such as “infinity“ and “duality“ aren't just a lack of current understanding, but are indicative of a larger error. Although I didn't quite understand where my error was at this point, I felt that I had enough understanding of the concepts to allow me to explain away this shortsightedness."
There are now some serious hints as to why this breakdown occurs. The calculation required to completely describe anything with appreciable complexity (beginning with approx. 400 quantum-entangled particles) requires more computational power than the computational resources available in the entire physical universe (including gravitational modes). This limit - called the "Landauer-Lloyd limit" is approx. 101^20 bits - and has many important implications for emergence and NPMR.